Belajar Hipnotis Surabaya- Traditional Forensic HypnosisThere have been a significant number of famous cases in the last century where hypnosis has been successfully used to elicit critical details about events. There have, however, also, been many reported in which the information recalled was distorted or highly inaccurate. This has led to some confusion and doubt surrounding the effectiveness of forensic hypnosis.
Traditionally, Forensic Hypnosis was conducted by employing various 'fishing', 'pinpoint regression' and 'timeline' type of techniques - where the therapist/interviewer would direct the client back (whilst they are in a hypnotic state) to a specific experience, in an attempt to 'help' him/her to recall detailed information about the experience. The therapist or interviewer would then tend to lead the session in the direction he/she (quite possibly wrongly) felt was most beneficial to the investigation or therapy. Preconceived ideas on the therapist/interviewer's part about what occurred, along with inappropriate suggestions, may well have impacted upon the hypnotised person's recall of the event.
In addition, the view held by many that hypnosis itself is somehow 'magical' and has special memory enhancing properties may well have contributed to its use in a misguided and inappropriate manner.
A recent review (2009) in the Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling by Graham Wagstaff states:
"...it seems somewhat ironical that one of the most significant features of public stereotypes of hypnosis, the belief that it has 'special properties', has perhaps been the main cause of its downfall as a forensic tool, and the scepticism with which hypnotically elicited testimony is now received by researchers and legal professionals in the courtroom, i.e. the belief that hypnosis has a special capacity to enhance memory seems to have played a major part in producing the memory errors and false confidence effects now associated with hypnosis."
Using the traditional forensic hypnosis techniques has, in a significant number of cases, been unsuccessful or even detrimental. In the worst case scenario, these traditional techniques can produce highly distorted information. Even in many cases where the material recalled is largely accurate, it is likely that some potentially important information will have been missed. In addition to this, a traditional forensic hypnosis session conducted in this manner is unlikely to really help a victim of (or witness to) a traumatic event in getting over the experience and processing the emotional trauma, in the most effective manner.
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Quite understandably, there have been a number of valid concerns regarding the use of hypnosis in obtaining information from witnesses and victims of crime. In the UK in December 1986 Thames Valley Police secured the services of a non-forensic-trained hypnotherapist to help them elicit further detail from a witness in a significant criminal case. The techniques used by the therapist made the judge doubt the validity of the (enhanced?) witness statement. The five defendants were released, the case was thrown out, and Thames Valley Police were severely critisised for using a non-forensic-aware hypnotist, and ruining an important case.